Feds: Cocaine a factor in Round Lake pilot's fatal 2014 crash
"The FAA forbids the use of substances that could lead to impairment," Federal Aviation Administration spokeswoman Elizabeth Isham Cory said.
Jeffrey Bronken, 53, was killed early in the morning of March 22, 2014, when the single-engine Piper PA-28-181 aircraft he was piloting crashed after running out of fuel a few miles north of St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport in Florida. Bronken's 15-year-old daughter, Katherine, who attended Grant Community High School in Fox Lake, died from injuries four days later.
Bronken's inadequate fuel planning, which resulted in a total loss of engine power due to fuel exhaustion, led to the crash, according to a National Transportation Safety Board probable cause report. The NTSB report states "the pilot's impairment due to cocaine use" contributed to the crash.
Disappointment in the NTSB report was reflected in a statement to the Daily Herald issued by Bronken family attorney Theodore Karavidas of Barrington. Karavidas has represented Bronken's widow and Katherine's mother, Susan, in matters.
"The family is further saddened by the conclusion of the NTSB that Jeff's judgment was impaired to any degree," the statement reads. "Jeff refueled in Nashville and was informed upon departure that he had enough fuel for 4 hours, 35 minutes of flight time. At the 4 hour 21 minute mark, he realized as he approached his destination airport that a highway landing was required.
"The blood level of cocaine reported by the NTSB was below the threshold needed to produce impairment or physiological effects. The family is disappointed by the questionable conclusion of the NTSB and asks the public to respect their privacy in this time of grief."
Katherine Bronken's friend, Keyana Linbo, survived spinal and other serious injuries in the crash. Linbo attends Grant High, where she's on the girls varsity basketball team.
Linbo's family learned of the NTSB report shortly after it was filed in late October, said their attorney, Thomas Lake of Libertyville.
"The NTSB concluded, generally, that there was impairment from cocaine use, along with inadequate fuel planning," Lake said. "I think the inadequate fuel planning was pretty obvious, but the impairment from cocaine use was not. It was surprising and very upsetting to the family."
NTSB officials used data from various sources for the crash findings, according to the probable cause report.
Jeffrey Bronken took off for Florida from Campbell Airport in Round Lake Park about 6:30 p.m. March 21, 2014. His intended destination of St. Petersburg-Clearwater is a full-service airport with commercial passenger service, cargo, military and general aviation operations.
Investigators found Bronken flew from Campbell Airport to John C. Tune Airport in Nashville, Tennessee, to refuel at 11:38 p.m. March 21, 2014. He departed Nashville for the final leg to Florida.
During the night cross-country flight, Bronken's plane had been airborne for 4 hours, 21 minutes and about 6 miles from his destination when he reported a fuel emergency to air traffic control about 4 a.m., according to the NTSB report.
Bronken stated he planned to land on a highway, but collided with 160-foot-tall power lines that crossed the road, the NTSB found. The report says an examination of the wreckage did not reveal any mechanical malfunctions of the airframe or engine before impact, and "only a few ounces of fuel" were recovered from the crash site.
"The pilot's toxicology results were positive for cocaine," according to the NTSB, "and impairment from cocaine likely affected his preflight fuel planning abilities and en route fuel management."
Toxicology testing was performed by the FAA's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute in Oklahoma City. Cocaine was detected in Bronken's cavity blood, urine and liver, according to the report.
About 400 neighbors, friends and family gathered at a park in Round Lake for a candlelight vigil March 30, 2014, to remember the lives of Jeffrey and Katherine Bronken.
Jeffrey Bronken was remembered for a sense of humor and patience while coaching basketball at St. Bede School in Ingleside and other youth teams. Family friends said he was a conscientious veteran pilot.
Linbo's family filed a claim against Bronken's estate and received a $100,000 out-of-court settlement in November, Lake said. He said the NTSB report was not part of the litigation.
"Keyana is a very fortunate, a very resilient individual," Lake said. "And, based on the circumstances, very lucky."
Story, video and photo gallery: http://www.dailyherald.com
Katie Bronken and her dad Jeff flying together. This picture is from a previous flight.
NTSB Identification: ERA14FA162
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Saturday, March 22, 2014 in Safety Harbor, FL
Probable Cause Approval Date: 10/21/2015
Aircraft: PIPER PA-28-181, registration: N8309L
Injuries: 2 Fatal, 1 Serious.
NTSB investigators either traveled in support of this investigation or conducted a significant amount of investigative work without any travel, and used data obtained from various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.
During the night cross-country flight, the airplane had been flying for 4 hours 21 minutes and was about 6 miles from the destination airport when the pilot reported a fuel emergency to air traffic control. The pilot stated that he was going to attempt to land on a highway; however, the airplane collided with 160-ft-tall power lines that crossed the highway. Examination of the wreckage did not reveal any preimpact mechanical malfunctions of the airframe or engine, and only a few ounces of fuel were recovered from the wreckage. The airplane held 48 usable gallons of fuel and consumed about 10.5 gallons per hour, resulting in an expected endurance of 4 hours 35 minutes, which does not account for fuel used during taxi, takeoff, and climb. The pilot’s toxicology results were positive for cocaine, and impairment from cocaine likely affected his preflight fuel planning abilities and en route fuel management.
The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident as follows:
The pilot's inadequate fuel planning, which resulted in a total loss of engine power due to fuel exhaustion. Contributing to the accident was the pilot's impairment due to cocaine use.
Katherine Bronken (left) and Keyano Linbo (right), both 15. Katherine Bronken, died of injuries suffered in the crash. Keyano Linbo was seriously injured but survived.
HISTORY OF FLIGHT
On March 22, 2014, at 0400 eastern daylight time, a Piper PA-28-181, N8309L, operated by a private individual, was substantially damaged when it collided with powerlines, during a forced landing to a highway in Safety Harbor, Florida, near Saint Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport (PIE), Clearwater, Florida. The private pilot and one passenger were fatally injured, while a second passenger was seriously injured. Night visual meteorological conditions prevailed and no flight plan was filed for the planned flight to PIE. The flight departed John C Tune Airport (JWN), Nashville, Tennessee at 2338 eastern daylight time on March 21, 2014. The personal flight was conducted under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91.
According to information from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the pilot completed an earlier leg of the long cross-country flight uneventfully, from Campbell Airport (C81), Grayslake, Illinois to JWN. During the second leg, the pilot radioed a "fuel emergency" to air traffic control at 0359:36. The controller queried the pilot twice as to his request and at 0400:03, the pilot replied "landing on the highway sir, fuel emergency." No further transmissions were received from the accident airplane. The airplane subsequently impacted powerlines about 6 miles north of PIE.
The pilot held a private pilot certificate with a rating for airplane single-engine land. His most recent FAA second-class medical certificate was issued on October 31, 2013. At that time, he reported a total flight experience of 1,549 hours; of which, 64 hours were flown during the previous 6 months. The pilot's logbook was not recovered. He had owned the accident airplane since 2007.
The four-seat, low-wing, fixed tricycle-gear airplane, serial number 28-8190112, was manufactured in 1980. It was powered by a Lycoming O-360, 180-horsepower engine, equipped with a Sensenich fixed-pitch propeller. Review of the airplane's logbooks revealed that its most recent annual inspection was completed on November 1, 2013. At that time, the airplane had accumulated 9,221 total hours of operation. The engine had accumulated 5,672 total hours; of which, 1,420 hours were since the most recent major overhaul that was completed in 2007. According to the tachometer, the airplane had flown about 21.6 hours since the most recent annual inspection.
Review of a pilot operating handbook for the make and model airplane revealed that the airplane was equipped with two 25-gallon fuel tanks, one in each wing, for a total fuel capacity of 50 gallons (48 useable). The airplane was completely fueled with 44 gallons of 100 low-lead aviation gasoline prior to departing JWN.
The recorded weather at PIE, at 0353, was: wind 030 degrees at 5 knots; visibility 10 miles; sky clear; temperature 19 degrees C; dew point 16 degrees C; altimeter 30.01 inches Hg.
There was no record of the pilot receiving a weather briefing for the accident flight, or previous leg, from flight service or the direct user access terminal system.
The wreckage came to rest upright, nose-down, oriented on a southeasterly heading, on a highway beneath the powerlines. All major components of the airplane were accounted for at the scene. The engine and cockpit area were crushed inward and the cabin roof had separated. The cabin roof, where the top of the cockpit door met the cabin, exhibited an impact mark consistent with a wire strike. The impact mark was a similar size to an approximate 1.25-inch-thick aluminum powerline that had separated during the impact, causing a power outage in the area. The aluminum power line had been located about 160 feet above the highway and oriented perpendicular to it.
The leading edge of the left wing exhibited impact damage. The left main fuel tank remained intact and approximately 4 ounces of fuel were recovered from it by an FAA inspector. The left aileron and flap remained attached. The right wing was undamaged with the exception of a partial separation of the right flap and the right fuel tank was compromised at its fuel drain. During recovery, the FAA inspector observed some drops of fuel dripping from the right tank, but the tank otherwise did not contain an appreciable quantity of fuel. The fuel selector was found positioned to the left main fuel tank.
The four seats and their respective seatbelts remained intact, including the pilot's shoulder harness. The seatbelts had been unlatched by rescue personnel and the pilot's shoulder harness had separated with the cabin roof; however, when tested both front seat and rear seat seatbelts latched and unlatched without difficulty. Flight control continuity was confirmed from all control surfaces to the mid-cabin area.
The propeller was removed from the engine to facilitate crankshaft rotation. The top spark plugs were also removed. Their electrodes were intact and light gray in color. The crankshaft was then rotated by hand. Camshaft, crankshaft, and valve train continuity were confirmed to the rear accessory section. Thumb compression was attained on all cylinders. The carburetor bowl drain plug was removed from the carburetor and approximately 1 ounce of fuel was drained. The fuel was light blue, clear, and consistent with 100 low-lead aviation gasoline.
A handheld Garmin 496 GPS was recovered from the cockpit and forwarded to the NTSB Vehicle Recorders Laboratory, Washington, D.C. Data were successfully downloaded from the unit and plotted. The plots revealed that at 1930, the airplane departed C81 and proceeded uneventfully to JWN at 2312. After fuel was purchased, the flight departed JWN at 2338.
MEDICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL INFORMATION
An autopsy was performed on the pilot by the State of Florida, District Six Medical Examiner's Office, Largo, Florida, on March 22, 2014. The cause of death was noted as blunt trauma.
Toxicology testing was performed by the FAA's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute. No ethanol was detected in vitreous. Cocaine was detected in cavity blood (0.024 ug/ml), urine (7.301 ug/ml), and liver (0.078 ug/g). Benzoylecgonine, an inactive cocaine metabolite, was detected in cavity blood (0.638 ug/ml), urine (109.404 ug/ml), and liver (0.994 ug/g). Ecgonine methyl ester, another inactive cocaine metabolite, was detected in cavity blood, urine, and liver. Cocaethylene, an active metabolite of cocaine only produced when ethanol is also ingested, was detected in cavity blood, urine (0.775 ug/ml), and liver. Anhydroecgonine methyl ester, a metabolite of smoked cocaine, was detected in liver and urine but not in the cavity blood. Levamisole was detected in the cavity blood and urine.
Cocaine is a strong central nervous system stimulant. Initial effects include: euphoria, excitation, general arousal, dizziness, increased focus and alertness. At higher doses, effects may include psychosis, confusion, delusions, hallucinations, fear, antisocial behavior, and aggressiveness. Late effects, beginning within 1 to 2 hours after use, include: dysphoria, depression, agitation, nervousness, drug craving, general central nervous system depression, fatigue, and insomnia. Additional performance effects are expected after higher doses, with chronic ingestion, and during drug withdrawal including agitation, anxiety, distress, inability to focus on divided attention tasks, inability to follow directions, confusion, hostility, time distortion, and poor balance and coordination.
Cocaine's therapeutic range in blood is from 0.12 to 0.27 ug/ml and its half-life is from 0.7 to 1.5 hours. Cocaine is rapidly metabolized by the body into inactive compounds including benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester.
Cocaethylene is produced in the body when cocaine and ethanol are ingested together. This biologically active molecule is nearly as psychoactive as cocaine.
Anhydroecgonine methyl ester is formed when cocaine is smoked. This unique product is not biologically active but can be used as an indicator of smoked cocaine, or "crack" use.
Further review of performance information revealed that at 75 percent power, the airplane's engine consumed about 10.5 gallons of gasoline per hour with the mixture leaned to best power. That consumption resulted in an endurance of approximately 4 hours, 35 minutes and did not account for fuel used during taxi, takeoff, and climb.
14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation
Accident occurred Saturday, March 22, 2014 in Safety Harbor, FL
Aircraft: PIPER PA-28-181, registration: N8309L
Injuries: 1 Fatal,2 Serious.
This is preliminary information, subject to change, and may contain errors. Any errors in this report will be corrected when the final report has been completed. NTSB investigators either traveled in support of this investigation or conducted a significant amount of investigative work without any travel, and used data obtained from various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.
On March 22, 2014, about 0400 eastern daylight time, a Piper PA-28-181, N8309L, operated by a private individual, was substantially damaged when it collided with powerlines, during a forced landing to a highway in Safety Harbor, Florida, near Saint Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport (PIE), Clearwater, Florida. The private pilot was fatally injured and two passengers were seriously injured. Night visual meteorological conditions prevailed and no flight plan was filed for the planned flight to PIE. The flight departed John C Tune Airport (JWN), Nashville, Tennessee about 2338 eastern daylight time on March 21, 2014. The personal flight was conducted under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91.
According to preliminary information from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the airplane was in radio and radar contact with air traffic control (ATC) as it approached PIE. The pilot subsequently reported a fuel emergency and the airplane impacted powerlines about 6 miles north of PIE.
The wreckage came to rest upright, nose-down, oriented on a southeasterly heading, on a highway beneath the powerlines. All major components of the airplane were accounted for at the scene. The engine and cockpit area were crushed inward and the cabin roof had separated. The cabin roof, where the top of the cockpit door met the cabin, exhibited an impact mark consistent with a wire strike. The impact mark was a similar size to an approximate 1.25-inch-thick aluminum powerline that had separated during the impact, causing a power outage in the area. The aluminum power line had been located about 160 feet above the highway.
The leading edge of the left wing exhibited impact damage. The left main fuel tank remained intact and approximately 4 ounces of fuel were recovered from it by an FAA inspector. The left aileron and flap remained attached. The right wing was undamaged with the exception of a partial separation of the right flap and the right fuel tank was compromised at its fuel drain. During recovery, the FAA inspector observed some drops of fuel dripping from the right tank. The fuel selector was found positioned to the left main fuel tank.
The pilot held a private pilot certificate with a rating for airplane single-engine land. His most recent FAA second-class medical certificate was issued on October 31, 2013. At that time, he reported a total flight experience of 1,549 hours.
One of the teenagers in a Clearwater plane crash on Saturday that killed the pilot has died, the Pinellas County Sheriff’s Office said.
Katherine Bronken, 15, died this afternoon from her injuries, deputies said.
Katherine and her father, Jeffrey Bronken, 53, were on an overnight spring break trip with her friend, Keyana Linbo, 15, from Chicago to Clearwater early Saturday when Jeffrey Bronken reported some kind of fuel-related problem to air traffic controllers.
Shortly after that, the single-engine Piper PA-28 nose-dived into a median on McMullen Booth Road near Union Street, about seven miles north of St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport, investigators say.
Bronken died at the scene. Keyana remains hospitalized, deputies said.
The three are from Round Lake, Ill.
Officials: Pilot in fatal crash reported fuel issue
SAFETY HARBOR —
A pilot was killed and his daughter and another teenage girl were seriously injured early Saturday when a small plane crashed on McMullen Booth Road in north Pinellas County, police said.
The single-engine Piper crashed nose-first in the median of the six-lane road just north of Union Street around 4 a.m., authorities said. Jeffrey Bronken, 53, died at the scene. Katherine Bronken and Keyano Linbo, both 15, were taken to St. Joseph’s Hospital in Tampa in serious condition.
Deputies said Keyana’s injuries do not appear to be life-threatening.
All were from Roundlake, Ill., about an hour north of Chicago.
The plane clipped a roadside power line on its way down, knocking out electricity to about 450 nearby residents. Firefighters extinguished some small fires from debris on the road, authorities said.
The plane has been removed from the scene.
“It’s just affecting getting in and out and doing your normal routine. No power–but those are minor things,” said nearby resident Chris Pearson.
The National Transportation Saftey Board said the pilot was headed to Clearwater Airport and reported some kind of fuel issue to airtraffic control before the plane went down.
“We’ll probably have to look at the route of flight, how long the plane was flying, where it stopped for fuel and so forth,” said investigator Robert Gretz, NTSB. “That will be one of the things we’ll look at, but we’ll also keep an open mind and look at everything — if it was a fuel leak or maybe it was something else that was causing engine problems that maybe wasn’t fuel related.”
Authorities said the plane left the Chicago area around 6:30 p.m. Friday, and the pilot may have been flying his daughter and her friend to Clearwater for spring break.
No vehicular traffic was impacted, and no one else was injured.
“This happened at 4 a.m., so luckily, no one was on the road at that time in this vicinity,” said Pinellas County Sheriff’s Office spokesman Sgt. David DiSano.
A witness said he heard a “big boom,” looked outside and saw a big flash of light. He said he initially dismissed it as thunder and lightning.
One neighbor said they heard troubling sounds leading up to the crash.
“It was a different sound,” said neighbor Lisa Pratt. “I know the difference between an engine that’s running and an engine that’s sputtering and I was worried it might crash on my house, so I got up right away and looked for it.
“It looked like it was coming in for a landing.”
Elizabeth Nelson lives and works in the area and said on her drive to work this morning, she watched the plane take a nosedive in the middle of the road.
“It was like a long line of fireworks and everything just kept coming down, just like a curtain,” she said.
McMullen Booth Road remained closed between Union Street and Enterprise Road for more than 12 hours. Federal Aviation Administration and National Transportation Safety Board investigators are on the scene.
Clearwater, Florida — A small plane crashed in the middle of a Clearwater road killing the pilot, and seriously injuring two teenage girls riding as passengers inside.
The single-engine piper plane crashed just a few miles from the St. Pete Clearwater International Airport at 4:00 a.m. on Saturday morning. The plane is registered to A Glass Man a company that makes custom windows and doors out of Illinois. The pilot, 53-year-old Jeffrey Bronken, his 15-year-old daughter Katherine, and her friend 15-year-old Keyana Kinbo flew out of Chicago at 6:30 p.m. Friday and were heading to Florida for a spring break trip.
Bronken crashed the plane in between neighborhoods on McMullen Booth Road, just north of Union Street.
Both the father, daughter and friend are all from Round Lake, Illinois, which is just outside of Chicago.
“The sound was so loud,” said neighbor Dennis Martin who lives just 200 feet from the crash. “I have never heard anything that loud.”
“It’s tragic,” said another neighbor standing outside watching fire rescue crews clean up the wreckage. “It’s a mangled mess, terrible. I can’t believe anyone survived. Thank goodness the girls are still alive.”
Katherine posted on her Twitter Friday night, “Just landed in Nashville.” And on Thursday night, Keyana posted, “T-minus 24 hours = paradise.”
Their loved ones posted about them on Twitter Saturday morning. Bethany Trock posted, “My prayers go out to the Bronken and Linbo families. Stay strong. ”
There are pictures online of Katherine with her father flying in a plane, and going to Hawks games together. Katherine’s dear friend, Josh Mathis, says the two were very close.
Their family lost Katherine’s older sister four years ago in a snow mobile accident.
Katherine’s mother, who is also Jeffrey’s wife, is reportedly on her way to Florida.
FAA , NTSB, and Pinellas County Sheriff’s Office are all investigating flight path , how the flight crashed, the death.
The plane nose-dived through power lines knocking out power to about 400 Duke Energy customers.
Tampa, Florida — A National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) report shows the same plane that crashed on McMullen Booth Road in Clearwater on Saturday was involved in a “nosedive accident” back in 2007.
The NTSB said that accident involved a different pilot who overshot the runway. No one was injured in that incident.
On Saturday evening, hospital officials said 15-year-old Katherine Bronken, the daughter of 53-year-old pilot Jeffrey Bronken, was in critical condition. Her friend, 15-year-old Keyana Kinbo, was in fair condition. Jeffrey Bronken died in the crash.
The three flew out of Chicago at 6:30 p.m. Friday and were heading to Florida for a spring break trip.
Neighbor Ken Hoxie said, “This is something that’s traumatic.” He said Jeffrey Bronken was always helpful, very much a family and community man. “Jeff – bigger than life.”
Neighbors say his daughter, Katherine, is a wonderful person too, and an athlete.
Sadly, this is not the first tragedy the family has suffered; friends say back in 2009 daughter Christy Bronken died in a snowmobile accident. Many people say they have Katherine and Cristy’s mother in their thoughts.
“It was tragic. It really affected the family a lot. We are going to pray and hope she can keep going.”
A Round Lake man who loved to fly and was an experienced pilot was killed early Saturday, while his teenage daughter and her friend were injured when the small plane he was piloting for a spring break getaway crashed into a six-lane street in Florida.
Jeffrey Bronken, 53, died in the crash, Florida’s Pinellas County Sheriff’s spokesman Sgt. David DiSano said in a statement. The two teenage girls, both 15, were injured, although their conditions were not known. They were identified by police as Katherine Bronken, Jeffrey Bronken’s daughter, and Keyana Linbo, also of Round Lake.
This isn’t the first time the Bronken family has experienced a tragedy. On Dec. 19, 2009, Jeffrey Bronken’s daughter Christine Bronken died at the age of 20 in an early morning snowmobile crash in Three Lakes, Wisconsin, according to records from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Reports show she failed to follow the snowmobile route, lost control and tried to brake before going airborne and striking a home. Speed and alcohol were listed as factors in the fatal crash.
Early Saturday, Jeffrey Bronken and the teens were in the single-engine plane heading from the Chicago area to St. Pete/Clearwater airport in eastern Florida — about 30 miles east of Tampa — when the plane crashed in Clearwater about 4 a.m. Eastern Standard Time, authorities said. A family spokesman said the plane had departed from Campbell Airport in Grayslake.
The plane hit power lines before crashing head first into a median on a six-lane street, authorities said.
NTSB records show the same plane was involved in a crash on May 12, 1997 at Campbell Airport. A private pilot overran a landing, leaving the taxiway and coming to rest “nose down” in a small canal off the end of the roadway. The pilot wasn’t injured.
The plane, which was built in 1980, was owned by another private pilot at the time.
Reached by phone Saturday, Jeffrey Bronken’s son and wife declined comment. Neighbors said his wife flew to Florida as soon as she found out about the crash.
Jeffrey Bronken owned a Highland Park company called The Glass Man, Inc., which specializes in glass contracting for homes. FAA records show the fixed wing single-engine plane was registered to the glass business and that Bronken was licensed as a private pilot in October 2007.
Ken Hoxie, a neighbor who was chosen to be the family’s spokesman, said he has known the Bronken family for 15 years. Hoxie described Jeffrey Bronken as a “larger-than-life” type of guy, who was always helping out whenever he could in the neighborhood.
He said Jeffrey Bronken was taking his daughter “Katie” and her friend to Tampa for a couple of days for spring break.
Hoxie coached the younger Bronken, a freshman at Grant High School, in junior high volleyball: “She’s just a great person,” Hoxie said. He said his daughter and Katie Bronken “are like sisters.”
Hoxie was puzzled as to what happened with the plane, and described Jeffrey Bronken as “a very accomplished flyer.”
“He was always very conscientious about what he did, making sure he was up-to-date on everything [related to flying],” Hoxie said. “He always talked about it as a love of his.”
Hoxie said his family is shocked and saddened by the news: “It’s a shock. It’s a shame. It’s a fantastic family. You don’t understand, sometimes, why these things happen. All we can do is pray for the family.”
Lisa Roberts, another neighbor, said Jeffrey Bronken once went house to house to help neighbors install sprinkling systems.
“He was really active around the house. They always do their house up all year long. The landscaping was just groomed perfectly and they had all these beautiful mums,” Roberts said.
Both Jeffrey Bronken and his wife were often seen outside, grooming the plants.
Roberts said the Bronkens had company over frequently, and always had prom celebrations for their children.